Volume 9, No. 1, 2021

Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Solar Tunnel Dryer for Apricot Drying in Northern Pakistan
F. Hussain, I. Akhtar, G. Murtaza, U. Haider, L. Rukh and M. Owais
Int J Appl Sci Engr, 2021, 9(1): 1-5.

In this study an indirect solar tunnel dryer was simulated. The dryer consists a collector, drying chamber and three DC fans of 2.5 watts installed at bottom of solar tunnel dryer to provide required air flow. The total length of solar tunnel dryer was 10m whereas width was 1.22m. The dryer was developed in department of Energy Systems Engineering, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) using Solid works flow software was employed to predict a three dimensional transient fluid flow and temperature distribution within the drying chamber. The predicted air flows showed that mean air flow velocity at collector was 3 m/sec and 2 m/sec in drying chamber. A significant drying homogeneity was observed both at collector and drying chamber by simulation results. The temperature of the collector and drying chamber evolves at 350 K and 335 K respectively. The model was validated by measuring the temperature along the tunnel dryer. The mean temperature difference between experimental and CFD simulation was found to be 1.5oC providing better quantitative and qualitative insights of temperature distribution within the collector and drying chamber. The experimental results revealed that drying time of STD and open sun was observed to be 10 hours and three days respectively. The efficiency of the collector and dryer was found to be 45% and 29%. Performance analysis showed that dryer can dry apricot in Northern Pakistan as per hygiene standards.

Keywords: CFD, Collector, Drying chamber, Simulation, Solid work, STD.

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Optimization of the Drying Process of Bloodmeal from a Fresh Cow Blood in a Convective Oven by Response Surface Methodology
Izunna Ijezie Asoegwu, Charles O. Nwajinka and ICE Umeghalu
Int J Appl Sci Engr, 2021, 9(1): 6-12.

Towards achieving an integrated system where zero waste will be achieved and because of the enormous pressure on the available food materials as a result of ever-rising human population and with the nutritive value of Blood meal and accessibility of cow blood compare to other protein materials of animal origin, it become imperative that blood meal should find greater use as an animal feed and fertilizer. This research was carried out to assess the effects of drying conditions on the proximate compositions of blood meal with the aim of optimizing the drying conditions. Cow blood sample collection, EDTA bottles (Heparin tubes), convective oven dryer, design expert, design of experiment (DOE) and one factor at a time (OFAT) were used to generate data for the study. The convective oven dryer dries the sample and moisture content data, weight loss data and remaining mass data were determined for every run. The DOE was used to determine the right dosage for the experiment. The design expert was used to design data for the study of the optimization of the drying process. Using multiple regression analysis and basing P-value < 0.05 and F-value >100, the optimized drying conditions of blood meal in a convective oven are 51.980C (temperature), 2.864m/s (Airspeed) and 33.944 minutes at 3g initial dosage. The quadratic regression model successfully elucidated the effects of the independent variables on the drying process, with a coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.9876. Bloodmeal is a huge source of protein. It is recommended that abattoirs should have built-in dryers for the purpose of drying the fresh cow blood. This will reduce environmental pollution while providing livestock feeds and fertilizers.

Keywords: Drying, Blood, Bloodmeal, Optimization, Response Surface Methodology.

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Evaluation of the Major Communication Factors Affecting Engineering Construction and Project Management Delivery Amidst Covid-19 Pandemic in Anambra State
Echeme II, Chukwuneke CJ and Ubah JI
Int J Appl Sci Engr, 2021, 9(1): 13-19.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the major communication factors affecting Engineering construction and project management delivery amidst Corona Virus pandemic at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi in Anambra State. Survey design technique was adopted and questionnaire was designed and distributed to 87 respondents. Data were collected and analyzed using t-test and F-test. The result shows that all the factors are significant communication factors except political divide. Also, communication management affected cost and timely delivery of NAUTH construction projects. Therefore, the study recommends adoption of modern methods of communication, training of the workforce on language skills and minimization of high communication cost using social media and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP).

Keywords: Communication, Project Management, Engineering Construction, Covid-19, Survey

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Review of Aflatoxin Reduction Potential of Antioxidants
Esayas Abrha and Zerihun Asefa
Int J Appl Sci Engr, 2021, 9(1): 20-25.

Pests and diseases are prevalent on food commodities such as maize, sorghum, millet, and cassava in the field and during storage. Toxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium create mycotoxins, which are secondary metabolites. Both people and animals are susceptible to their mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasitic generate the most potent mycotoxins, which are found in agricultural products such as peanuts, maize grains, cereals, and animal feed. The most common incidence and stability of these mycotoxins to physical and chemical variables during food and feed processing offer substantial health risks to humans and animals. As a result, the best way to deal with this condition is to use both natural and synthetic detoxification methods. The goal of this review is to look at how natural and synthetic chemical approaches can be used to control aflatoxins contamination and how they can be reduced. Antioxidants are compounds that help prevent or reduce cell damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules produced by the body in response to environmental and other stresses. Oxidative stress, which causes DNA, protein, and lipid damage at the cell level, is one of AFB1’s harmful mechanisms. Antioxidants have been used as food additives to defend against oxidative deterioration since they are known to prevent fungal formation. Among the various options, antioxidants are one of the control methods of mycotoxin and are regulated as dietary supplements and food consumption components. To reduce the effect of toxicity, the best way to prevent aflatoxin prevalence in agricultural products is to make suitable harvesting and storage conditions, but if that is not possible, it is better to eat fermented foods (yogurt or dairy drinks) or take probiotics, which are available as capsules, tablets, or powders.

Keywords: Aflatoxin, Antioxidants, Mycotoxin, Fermented-food, Toxicity.

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Effect of Traditional Smoking and Cleaning of Milk Equipment with Different Plants and Herbs on Keeping Quality and Organoleptic Properties of Raw Milk in Ethiopia
Zerihun Asefa and Esayas Abrha
Int J Appl Sci Engr, 2021, 9(1): 26-30.

The high moisture content, micronutrient content, and pH near to neutral make cow milk an ideal medium for the growth of spoilage as well as pathogenic microorganisms. This study aims to evaluate the traditional practices of milk utensils cleaning and smoking with different herbs and plants to improve the keeping quality as well as organoleptic properties of raw milk in rural parts and the agro-pastoral community of Ethiopia. In this study three, the most common cleaning herbs and three smoking plants traditionally practiced in the community were used in combinations. Accordingly, nine treatments and one control milk utensil cleaned with only water were used. Raw milk was stored in each utensil and microbial growth, physicochemical properties of pH and treatable acidity, and organoleptic properties of raw milk were evaluated at different times of storage at room temperature. The change in pH and treatable acidity of raw milk in T1, T4, and T7 were no significant changes between 0, 12, and 24 hrs of storage. The microbial growth of total plate count, total coliform, and lactic acid bacteria were no significant change during 0, 12, and 24 hrs of storage in treatment T1, T4, and T7. The organoleptic property of odor, test, and overall acceptability was shown a significant difference between treatments. Utilization of treatments mentioned as T1, T4, and T7 was better keeping quality, as well as organoleptic property on raw milk during storage at room temperature. So, they are better for the rural community of Ethiopia to keep milk safe and healthy until delivered to the market.

Keywords: Smoking, Organoleptic, Keeping quality, Cleaning.

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Evaluating Physical and Biological Methods of Preservation of Traditionally Produced Ethiopian Cottage Cheese (ayib) on their Keeping Quality
Zerihun Asafa1 and Esayas Abreha
Int J Appl Sci Engr, 2021, 9(1): 31-37.

Ayib is an Ethiopian acid and heat coagulated milk product that is typically made in the home. Their shelf life is limited, and their organoleptic properties are inconsistent. Using bio-protective lactic acid bacteria and physical drying procedures, this study aimed to improve the keeping quality, organoleptic property, and consistency of ayib. In this work, two drying procedures (air oven dry and microwave oven) were used to evaluate the keeping quality, proximate composition, physicochemical property, organoleptic consistency, and microbiological safety of two bio-protective L. rhamnosus and L. paracase. The protein, fat, and crude ash contents of microwave dried and oven-dried ayib were 25.67 and 23.85 percent, 1.94 and 1.91 percent, and 2.03 and 2.14 percent, respectively. The physicochemical property pH exhibits a broad reduction during the first 12 days of storage, with minor increases later. The treatable acidities of biologically treated ayib increased somewhat for the first 6 hours and thereafter decreased marginally. These dehydrated ayib samples, on the other hand, rose modestly after 6 days of storage. During storage, the water activities of dehydrated ayib rose linearly. Both biologically and dehydrated ayib’s organoleptic properties and sensory shelf life deteriorated during storage. Dehydrated ayib had an 18-day sensory shelf life, while biologically treated ayib had a 9-day sensory shelf life when stored at room temperature. To summarize, both biological and dehydration procedures were found to be effective in improving the keeping quality and organoleptic consistency of conventionally processed ayib. Particularly in poor countries’ rural milk processors, where there is little market access and no chilling facilities to preserve perishable dairy products.

Keywords: Bio-protective, Dehydration, Ayib, Organoleptic.

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