Volume 7, No. 2, 2019

Structural Analysis of Mesoscopic Features of Basement Complex Rocks Around Okom-Ita Area, Oban Massif Southeastern Nigeria
Opara KD, Onyekuru SO, Iwuagwu CJ, Anyanwu GC, Manuemelula EU and Nwachukwu CK
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2018, 7(2): 29-33.

The study involves the detailed structural mapping of Okom-Ita area and environs part of southeastern Nigeria basement complex. A total of two hundred and twenty five (225) joints, one hundred and thirty seven (137) fracture sets and eighty five (85) foliation trends were measured in the field and subjected to standard structural analysis and simple statistics. Result of trend of planar and linear structures in the study area showed a variety of orientations (NE-SW, NW-SE, E-W, and N-S). However in all cases, the NE-SW and NW-SE trend is dominant. Dips of fractures and joints are steep to nearly vertical. Also recorded are micro folds and S-trails with their axes trending N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE. The multiple orientation of structures indicates that the region was not monocyclic rather, it was subjected to polyphase deformation. Evidence of the Pan-African deformation was deduced from the N-S and NE-SW trends while pre-Pan-African deformation was documented as relicts in the E-W and NW-SE trends. The aftermath of the stress released by the Pan African orogeny were also documented in the later phase structurally emplaced intusive pegmatite, quartz veins and dolerite as observed in the study area.

Keywords: Mesoscopic, Nigeria, Oban massif, Okom-ita, Structural analysis

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Agricultural Land Clearing and Soil Conservation Practices for Agricultural Practices in Southern Nigeria
Umeghalu ICE and OF Alozie
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2018, 7(2): 34-39.

Land clearing is the foundation on which mechanized agricultural production is based. However, land clearing is not only difficult but also, delicate and requires special tools and skills. Stripping off topsoil on any land destined for agriculture is a catastrophe, since it is only the topsoil that contains the nutrients to the crops and offers stable conditions for cultivation. If topsoil texture is seriously disturbed by use of incorrect machinery, its natural structure is destabilized resulting in uneconomically low yields. Soil erosion is also accelerated. There are several methods and types of equipment which may be used to accomplish each particular case. The problem of land clearing is one of the limiting factors on increasing agricultural productivity. A well cleared land makes mechanization of agricultural operations easy and cost effective and enhances bumper harvest if crops are well managed. But experience has shown that most often land clearing exercise is not properly carried out resulting to the rapid restoration of the undergrowth. Hence, the prolific root system just below the surface of the ground causes severe losses from breakages of agricultural implement. The cost of repairing, maintaining and replacing of these implement is high and this adds to cost of production. Often, attempts made by various firms, individuals, and government who introduce tractor and equipment hiring scheme to mechanize agricultural practices were discouraged by these implement damages caused by improperly cleared land. Agricultural land clearing is the removof natural vegetation from land to a depth of about 30cm, it entails stumping and extraction of roots with minimum topsoil disturbance. While a well cleared land is a perennial asset, a poorly cleared land generates perennial problems in agricultural production.

Keywords: Land clearing mechanized Farming, Soil Erosion, Topsoil, Vegetation

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Challenges of Tractor and Equipment Hiring Services on Mechanization of Agriculture in Nigeria: A Study Case of Delta State Tractor Hiring Agency
Umeghalu ICE and DN Alika
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2018, 7(2): 40-44.

The challenges facing Delta State Tractor Hire Agency (DSTHA) on mechanization of agriculture was studied. Investigative survey approach using structural questionnaires and personal observations were used to obtain primary while secondary data was obtained from the records from Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources and office of the Delta State Tractor Hiring Agency (DSTHA). The data collected were analyzed using simple statistical methods such as percentages and charts. Results show that the Agency has not achieved her optimal potentials due to numerous challenges facing her which include: high frequency of machinery break down arising from poor repair and maintenance culture, poor funding, lack of skilled operators resulting to poor handling of the machineries, lack of spare parts, adverse environmental factors, improper record keeping etc. However, the Agency’s potential to achieve her set out objectives in the State is high, if good maintenance culture is adopted to prolong the machine service life.

Keywords: Environmental factors, Maintenance culture, Mechanization, Skilled operators, Tractor hire

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Obstacles to Small Holder Sheep and Goat Rearing in Rural Communities of Anaocha Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria
Ezeano CI, JC Obiegbuna and Orokwu Chukwuigwe
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2018, 7(2): 45-53.

The study investigated the obstacles to small holder sheep and goat rearing in Anaocha Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to ascertain the socio-economic characteristics of small holder sheep and goat rearers in Anaocha Local Government Area of Anambra State, determine sheep and goat preferences among rural households, the extent of preferences and reasons for the preferences, ascertain the possible causes of mortality in sheep and goats and major obstacles to sheep and goat rearing in the study area. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were used to elicit relevant information from the farmers. Data were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics like percentages, frequency and mean. The study revealed that the farmers were all Christians, relatively young, raised more goats than sheep and earn an average annual income of twenty- four thousand, four hundred naira (₦24,400) from the sales of sheep and goats. It was also found out that the farmers preferred rearing more goats to sheep. Also diseases and parasites, lack of feed, fund, veterinary services, labour and land were found to be the major obstacles to sheep and goat rearing in the study area. It was recommended that farmers should be made to have more contacts with agricultural extension agents for proper guidance and advice ; farmers should be encouraged to form or join co- operative societies for better opportunity to loan benefit from government ; they should be enlightened on the benefits of using high yielding foundation for higher productivity and to source their stock from known breeders and government establishments .More also veterinary service centers should be established in at least two communities in the local government for easy access to the farmers ; farmers should be taught the benefit of cleanliness which will help ward off disease causing organisms.

Keywords: Obstacles, Rural communities, Sheep and goats, Small holders

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Driving Rural Development through Mechanized Farming Ventures; A Nigerian Case Study
Amaefule DO, CO Nwajinka and BA Matthias
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2018, 7(2): 54-58.

Large scale mechanized business farms are mostly located in the rural areas, and greatly impact such locations if run successfully. Cotton is the most important vegetable fibre crop and is very compliant with extensive mechanization for its production and processing. This work studied the operations of integrated mechanized cotton farms located in some rural communities in the defunct Gongola State – present Adamawa and Taraba States, of Nigeria. The operations of the farms in relation to the socio-economic transformation of the host communities were studied. Analytical data was collected from observations and oral interviews during visits and period of employment in the organization. Secondary data was also obtained from publications. The analysis showed that the mechanization of the production and processing of cotton in the rural areas has afforded better employees economic wellbeing and improved social amenities and socio-physical environment of the area. The general living standard of the inhabitants had as a result been disposed to improvement. The study also portrayed the mechanism by which mechanized business farming drives rural development.

Keywords: Agricultural Mechanization, Cotton Production, Employment Generation, Rural Socio-Economic Transformation

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Status of Micronutrients in Soils of a Plain of Low Relief in Nigeria
Ayodele Owonubi and Ezekiel Oiganji
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2018, 7(2): 59-63.

An understanding of the status of soil micronutrient elements is imperative in ensuring global food security. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of copper, zinc, iron, manganese and nickel in some agricultural soils of a plain of low relief in the northern guinea savanna area of Nigeria. Landscape of the study area was stratified on the basis of soil drainage into: well drained, moderately drained and poorly drained units. A minimum of two profile pits representing average conditions were dug in each unit. Soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory for particle size distribution, organic matter and soil reaction. In addition, total and available copper, zinc, iron, manganese and nickel were determined using standard laboratory procedures. 0.1 M HCl extraction method was employed for available micronutrients. Copper deficiency was observed in soils of the area and seemed to be a reflection of the observed low total copper contents in the study area. However, there was no observed deficiency in zinc, manganese and iron. Furthermore, drainage condition significantly affected the distribution of zinc, iron and manganese in soils of the study area.

Keywords: Micronutrient, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Iron, Nickel

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Wine Production from a Local Fruit Icheku (Dialium guineense)
UP Ojukwu and SI Ozugha
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2018, 7(2): 64-67.

Ripe and undamaged icheku (Dialium guineense) was used in the production of wine by fermentation with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae var ellipsoids. Primary fermentation proceeded for five days at 28-30oC. The pH was steady from the zero to the fourth day and decreased for the rest of the days. The specific gravity and total dissolved solid (sugar) also remained constant from the zero to the fourth day and decreased for the rest of the days. There was a constancy in the titratable acidity from the zero to the fourth day after which it rose and fell. After a two month ageing period the wine produced gave a characteristic taste.

Keywords: Icheku, Yeast, Fermentation, Wine

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