Volume 2, No. 2, 2014

Comparison of Fufu Powders Produced Using Different Retting Techniques
Umeh SO, Okeke BC, Emelugo BN and Achufusi JN
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2014, 2(2): 18-21.

Four different methods, [1, unpeeled whole tubers (UPWT); 2, peeled whole tubers (PWT); 3, peeled sliced tubers (PST) and 4, peeled grated tubers (PGT)] were used to ret cassava tubers. Retting ability of the tubers, cyanide content and titratable acidity of the retting system were monitored till retting was complete. In method 1 retting was done in 5 days, method 2 retted in 4 days, method 3 retted in 3 days and method 4 retted in 2 days. Sample produced using method 4 had no cyanide content (nd), 3 had 0.03mg/g cyanide while 1 and 2 (UPWT and PWT) had the highest quantity of cyanide of 0.88mg/g and 0.48 mg/g respectively. All the products were dispersed and dried at 65-70oC for 72 hours, ground, sieved and packaged. Fufu dough prepared from the powders were compared in odour, taste, texture and general acceptability by 10 panelists using the Likert scale and analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Sample 4 was most preferred and it is encouraged to use this method to produce fufu powder.

Keywords: Cassava tubers, Cyanide content, Dry fufu flour, Fermented product

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A Phenotypic and Genetic Characterized Indigenous Chicken Ecotypes in Ethiopia
Addis Getu and Aschalew Tadese
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2014, 2(2): 22-27.

Review was conducted in Ethiopia during the year of 2014 to identify phenotypic and genetic characterized indigenous chicken ecotypes in Ethiopia. The data stated that poultry is a name given to domesticated birds kept by humans for eggs, meat and feathers. Thus domesticated poultry species are originated from the genus Gallus domestics. In Ethiopia from poultry species except chickens others are found in their natural habitats. Thus domesticated chickens ecotypes are characterized in both phenotypic and genetic methodologies. Based on phenotype about 17 indigenous chicken ecotypes are identified and characterized. Among phenotypic characterized chickens are Chefe, Jarso, Tilili, Horro, Tepi, Gelila, Debre-Elias, Melo-Hamusit, Gassay, Guangua, Mecha, Farta, Konso, Mandura, Sheka, Naked neck, Gugut and Gasgie. Whereas some of the phenotypic characterized chickens ecotypes are additionally identified their genetic variation using molecular characterization methods such as Debre- Elias, Melo- Hamusit, Tilili, Gassay and Naked Neck. Those indentified chicken ecotypes have their own unique morphological and genetic characteristics. Thus chicken ecotypes are providing important opportunities for increasing protein production and income generating for smallholders having short generation interval and high rate of productivity. Production system of those identified chicken were majorly traditional extensive type. Diseases, predators, lack of market facility, shortage of feed and poor extension service were the major barriers of production system of identified chickens. Generally chicken with different genetic and phenotypic character must be identified to conserve and protect from genetic erosion and dilution.

Keywords: Characterized, Genetic character, Indigenous chickens, phenotypic character

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Effect of Different Proportion of Malted Oat Grain and Noug Seed Cake Supplementation on Digestibility and Performance of Arsi-Bale Sheep Fed Grass Hay Basal Diet
Hailu Girma, Animut Getachew and Urge Mengistu
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2014, 2(2): 28-36.

The experiment was carried out using twenty-five yearling male Arsi Bale sheep with initial body weight of 14.4 + 1.8 kg (mean + SD) with the objective of determining effect of supplementing malted oat (MO), noug seed cake (NSC) and their mixtures at different proportions to grass hay (GH) basal diet on feed intake, digestibility, live weight change and carcass parameters of Arsi Bale sheep. The experiment consisted of 90 days feeding and 7 days digestibility trials followed by evaluation of carcass components at the end. The experimental design used was RCBD with five treatments and five blocks. Treatments were ad libitum feeding of grass hay alone (T1) or with supplementation of sole MO (T2), 2MO:1NSC (T3), 1MO:2NSC (T4), and sole NSC (T5), which was offered at 300 g/head/day. Sheep in T1 consumed greater (P<0.001) basal diet and lower total dry mater (DM) intake (539, 649, 679, 669 and 670 g/day total DM intake for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively) compared to the supplemented groups. The CP intake ranged 40 to 117 g/day and was lowest for T1 and increased with increasing level of NSC in the supplement. Digestibility of DM and CP was increased due to supplementation. Daily body weight gain (ADG) was lowest for T1, highest for T3 and intermediate for other treatments (1, 62, 87, 66 and 68 g/day with 6.2 SEM for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively). Hot carcass weight followed a similar trend like that of ADG (5.7, 9.2, 10.7, 9.5 and 9.5 (SEM = 0.40) for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively). Dressing percentage on slaughter weight and empty body weight basis, TEOC, TNEOC and rib-eye muscle area were significantly higher (P<0.001) in the supplemented group and lower in the un-supplemented animals. Based on the result of animal performance and net return, T3 is a better supplementary regime of this study.

Keywords: Arsi-bale sheep, Digestibility, Malted oat grain, Noug seed cake, Performance

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Moisture Diffusivity and Activation Energy of Drying of Melon Seeds
Nwajinka CO, Nwuba EIU and Udoye BO
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2014, 2(2): 37-43.

Activation energy, Specific energy consumption (SEC) and drying efficiency (DE) of melon seeds (Citrulus vulgaris) were investigated at drying temperatures of 29, 40, 50, and 55oC and varying air velocities of 0.6, 1.0, and 1.5 m/s. Curve fitting was used to determine the model constants of the drying curves under the prevailing conditions. The predicted and experimental results were compared using statistical methods for goodness of fit. Mellon seeds at average initial moisture content ranging from 0.17 to 0.38 gwater/g dry matter, were dried to average final moisture content range of 0.07 to 0.9 gwater/gdry matter, in a crop dryer. The activation energies were 37.1, 35.0 and 33.6 kJ.mol-1 for air velocity of 0.6 m.s-1, 1.0 m.s-1 and 1.3 m.s-1, respectively. The Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) ranged from 1.209 x 1010, 5.04 x 1010, 8.085 x 1010, 1.752 x 1010 J/kgwater, for the temperatures of 40, 50, 55, and 60oC respectively.

Keywords: Activation energy, Drying efficiency, Melon seeds, Specific energy consumption (SEC)

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