Volume 2, No. 1, 2014

Genetic Variation in Age and Body Weight at Sexual Maturity and Carcass Traits of Commercial Layer Strains
SO Olawumi
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2014, 2(1): 1-5.

This study was undertaken with the aim of determining genetic differences in age and body weight at sexual maturity between two strains of commercial layers. The study also aimed at assessing carcass and cutting yields after their first laying cycle which lasted 75 weeks. The two strains were ISA Brown (brown plumage) and Bovan Black (black plumage) which were reared on the floor, managed under similar housing, feeding regime and slaughtered at the same age. A total number of 100 day-old chicks per strain were obtained and reared on deep litter throughout the experimental period. The results showed that strain has no significant (P>0.05) effect on body weights at day-old, peak production and at the end of lay. However, at sexual maturity, Bovan Near had higher and superior mean values in body weight than Isa Brown. The former also recorded higher mean values in percent egg production at end-of-lay than the latter, but the reverse was the case for percent peak production. There was also no significant (P>0.05) effect of strain on all carcass traits with the exception of neck and leg weights. The study indicates that live weight of birds at the end of egg production depends on feeding and management status and not on genetic make-up. In addition, combined analyzed data showed that live weight has statistically significant (P<0.01) positive phenotypic correlations with dressing weight, eviscerated weight, carcass weight, breast muscle weight, back weight, thigh weight and drumstick weight. This implies that all the carcass traits measured were good indicators of live weight, and that anyone of them could be used to predict its value. Therefore, in a situation whereby the live weight of a spent layer was not measured before slaughter, the weight of any of the component parts could be used to predict its value since there was a strong positive association between live weight and all the carcass traits.

Keywords: Carcass, Phenotypic correlation, Spent layers, Strain, Trait

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Pattern of Antibiotic Sensitivity of Bacterial Isolates from Operative Wounds
Effiong Edet Bassey, Shamsuddeen U and Kyrian-Ogbonna Evelyn
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2014, 2(1): 6-9.

A total of 350 clinical specimens of operative wounds were obtained from adult patients of either sex who attended general Hospital Amaku, Awka. Wounds were grouped as follows: Appendectomy (20%), Laparotomy (13.3%), Prostatectomy (13.3%), Orthopedic Surgery (16.6%), Caesarian Section (20%), Burn wounds (16.6%). Out of these samples, 300 revealed positive growth for bacterial pathogens. The organisms isolated were, Escherichia coli (18%), Proteus spp. (10%), Streptococcus spp. (8%), Staphylococcus spp. (15%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15%) from the wounds. Drug sensitivity testing was performed to find out the susceptibility of common bacterial pathogens to antibiotics. The sensitivity of antibiotics for each isolate was recorded as rifampicin (66%), Cetazidine (80%), Ciprofloxacin (90%). Escherichia coli were predominant in all the wounds. The incidences of wounds were more among females where wounds from Caesarian sections were of increased occurrence.

Keywords: Bacterial infection, Sensitivity testing, Wound

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Inhibitory Activity of Clove and Neem Essential Oils on the Growth of Some Molds Isolated from Foods
Shamsuddeen U, EE Bassey and Sheshe KI
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2014, 2(1): 10-12.

The study was to access the antifungal activity of some clove and Neem essential oils on some mold strains isolated from foods. The essential oils were extracted from cloves, moringa and neem. The assayed mold strains were: Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergilus flavus, Aspergillus ocraceus, Aspergillus niger, Sporotricum spp., Alterbaria spp. and Aspergillus fumigates. The results obtained showed that, Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil showed prominent antimold activity on all assayed mold strains. Moringa (Moringa oleifera) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) essential oils showed no activity against all of the assayed mold strains.

Keywords: Cloves, Essential oils, Fungi, Inhibitory activity, Moringa, Neem

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Effectiveness of Briquetting Bio Mass Materials with Different Ratios in 30Kw down Draft Gasifier
Amaechi JN and Ahaotu EO
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2014, 2(1): 13-17.

The effectiveness of using saw dust as rural bio mass material in down draft gasifier for easy operation and power generation during rainy season is discussed in this paper. Sawdust which is a milling residue is available in huge quantity in saw mills throughout Nigeria. Apart from the problems of transportation, storage and handling, the direct burning of loose saw dust biomass is associated with very low thermal efficiency and widespread air pollution. The conversion efficiency is as low as 40% with particulate emissions in the flue gases in excess of 3000 mg/ Nm. In addition, a large percentage of un-burnt carbonaceous ash has to be disposed off. Mixture of the sawdust with cow dung could mitigate these pollution problems while at the same time used as domestic energy resources. The easily available rural bio mass material saw dust and rurally available binder material cum bio mass cow dung is used for briquetting. This experiment was carried out with briquetting of saw dust and binder cow dung at different ratios. The percentage of combustible gases like H2, CO, CH4, CO2, and N2 formed during gasification are found. Experimental results indicate that briquetting at 75:25 ratio of sawdust and cow dung is the best suitable biomass briquette for gasifier compared to the other two ratios considered. The result shows that the gas composition of methane is comparably high in this ratio (75:25) than other two ratios like (50:50) and (25:75) respectively. The results also show that pressure drop across the gasifier and producer gas composition increases with increase in air flow rate. Thermal efficiency is comparatively high at 75:25 ratio briquettes than other two ratios and it increases with air flow rate.

Keywords: Air flow rate, Binding material, Briquette saw dust, Combustion, Cow dung biomass, Gasification, Pressure drop and thermal efficiency, Producer gas

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