Volume 1, No. 2, 2013

Nutrient Digestibility and Carcass Evaluation of Rabbits Fed Graded Levels of Toasted Bambara Nut (Voandzeia subterranea) Sievate Meal
Antyev M, JB Mufwa, CD Kokol, P Shedrach, I Baya, AI Foku, AA Shown and JD Francis
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(2): 40-43.

Fifty weaner rabbits of 6-7 weeks of age averaging 681.70g in weight were divided into five treatment groups and each sub-group having two rabbits and used in 56 day feeding trial for nutrient digestibility and carcass evaluation. The rabbits were fed toasted bambara nut sievate meal to replaced maize at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% for treatment T1, T2, T3 T4 and T5 respectively in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The average live weight, slaughter weight, dressed weight, dressing percentage, loin, rack/ribs, stomach, and body length were significantly (<0.05) different among the treatment groups except the thigh/hind legs, shoulder/ fore legs, skin, liver, lings, small intestine, large intestine, kidney and caecum which did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among treatments. The digestibility result obtained in the study were significantly (P<0.05) different among treatments for dry matter, Crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre and nitrogen-free-extract. Based on the results, it is obvious that diets containing 40% toasted bambara nut sievate could be fed to growing rabbits without compromising their digestibility and carcass components.

Keywords: Carcass, Rabbit internal organs, TBNSM (Toasted Bambara Nut Sievate meal) Digestibility

| Full text pdf
Effects of supplementing rubber seed meal along with blood meal in broiler rations
RE Uwalaka, JP Ihezuo and EO Ahaotu
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(2): 44-47.

A trial was carried out to investigate the effects of the incorporation of rubber seed meal on the production performance, feed intake and carcass quality of the chickens until 12weeks of age reared with traditional system of management.
Unsexed 300 jupiter chickens were randomly divided into 4 groups each of 75 birds. Four diets contained different levels of rubber seed meal (RSM) and blood meal (BM):- R0 with 0% RSM and 0% BM; R10 with 10% RSM and 8% BM; R20 with 20% RSM and 6% BM and R30with 30% RSM and 4% BM. Birds were fed ad libitum throughout the experimental period. Results showed significant differences between treatment groups indicating the superiority of the diet supplemented with 30% RSM and 4% BM.

Keywords: Blood meal, Chickens, Feed supplementation, Rubber seed cake

| Full text pdf
Production of High Protein and Low Cyanide Wet Fufu Mash Using Starter Cultures
SO Umeh and FJC Odibo
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(2): 48-51.

High protein and low cyanide wet fufu mash was produced in this work. Traditional method of wet fufu production was employed to produce wet fufu, termed S1. A total of nine microorganisms (Aspergillus sp, Bacillus sp, Enterobacter sp, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida sp and Saccharomyces sp) were isolated from the retting water in four days. These organisms were tested for their ability to ret the tubers and produce acceptable fufu. Four organisms (Bacillus sp, Lactobacillus sp, Candida sp and Saccharomyces sp) caused complete retting of the tubers. Lactobacillus sp and Saccharomyces sp were able to grow in cassava medium in 24 – 48 hours while others require up to 72 hours. They are used to ret some tubers as single cultures and mixed cultures to produce wet fufu mash S2, S3, and S4 respectively. The four fufu samples produced were assessed for their protein and cyanide contents. Their percentage crude protein content were 2.02%, 9.43%, 9.75% and 10.20% respectively and the cyanide contents of the mixed culture sample was 0.01 mg/kg. Sensory evaluation of the samples accepts all the samples but liked S4 more followed by S3, S2. Starter cultures can be used to upgrade the crude protein content of fufu and drastically reduce the cyanide content.

Keywords: Cassava tubers, Fermenting cassava, Starter cultures, Waste water, Wet fufu

| Full text pdf
Rapid Fermentation Process of Fruit Waste and Abattoir Effluent
CN Osuji, EU Nwabueze, TO Akunna and EO Ahaotu
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(2): 52-55.

This paper reports on the rapid fermentation process of fruit waste and abattoir effluent. The fruit waste was mixed with different proportions of abattoir effluent in the ratio 1:8, 1:12 and 1:16 to produce biogas under anaerobic condition for a retention period of 49 days. The results obtained indicate increase production with increase volume of abattoir effluent. The mixing ratio of 1:8 produced the lowest mean volume of biogas of 6.8 litres while the ratio 1:16 produced the highest mean biogas of 15.2 litres. The pattern of biogas production is practically sensitive to the variation of the mixing ratios. Statistically, there is a significant difference (α = 0.05) in both biogas and methane produced in the different slurry concentrations prepared. The results of this study indicate that anaerobic co-digestion of fruit waste and abattoir effluent is good combination for biogas and methane production.

Keywords: Abattoir effluent, Anaerobic condition, Biogas, Fermentation process, Fruit waste, Methane

| Full text pdf
Effect of Poor Land Clearing on Soil and Agricultural Produce
Umeghalu ICE and JO Ngini
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(2): 56-60.

Increased agricultural productivity is essential and urgent to support the rapid population growth in Nigeria. Unfortunately, the present outmoded system of food production in the country would not fulfill this aspiration. Therefore, the answer to this dwindling fortune of the country’s agricultural sector is to mechanize agricultural operations. But viable mechanized agricultural practices allow that large scale farming starts with land clearing especially in the southern zone of Nigeria where vegetation is equatorial rain forest type. However, proper agricultural land clearing is difficult, costly and delicate, and therefore demands special skills and tools. This paper attempts to discuss various methods of land clearing activities in different vegetation zones of Nigeria.

Keywords: Crop yield, Productivity, Vegetation

| Full text pdf
Nutritional Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Indigenous Edible Mushroom Coprinopsis atramentaria
CN Osuji, EU Nwabueze, TO Akunna1 and EO Ahaotu
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(2): 61-65.

Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and bodies of several species of fungi. Mushrooms belong to the macro fungi because their fruiting structures are large enough to be seen with the naked eye. They can appear either below ground (hypogeous) or above ground (epigeous) where they may be picked by hand. They have been cultivated worldwide for commercial purposes. The research proves that coprinopsis atramentariais a nutritional mushroomand has great value to health. Antibacterial activity of various solvent extracts of coprinopsis atramentaria was tested against six species of bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillussubtilis and Micrococcus luteus. The methanol extract exhibited maximum activity. It showed narrow spectrum active against gram-negative bacteria and strongly inhibited gram-positivebacteria Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis.

Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Coprinopsis atramentaria, Proximate nutritional, composition

| Full text pdf
Replacement of Rice and Maize Stalks with Tephrosia spp and Moringa olerifera Cakes in the Diet of Small Ruminants Raised under Humid Tropics
JP Ihezuo, EO Ahaotu and RE Uwalaka
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(2): 66-68.

Tephrosia spp., a legume commonly found in humid tropic, and Moringa oleifera cake, a by-product obtained from processing of Moringa oleifera seeds were used at graded levels to replace maize and rice stalk diets in the feed of small ruminants in the dry season. Six experimental diets were formulated and administered to 12 West African Dwarf sheep and 12 West African Dwarf goats in a 2 x 6 factorial design. The study revealed that inclusion of Tephrosia spp. and Moringa oleifera cake increased the efficiency of crop residues utilization by the ruminants. The ruminants performed optimally in diet containing 50% Tephrosia and 50% Moringa oleifera cake. Furthermore, the study maintained that Tephrosia could be utilized like Moringa seed cake for protein supplementation in adult sheep as no mortalities was observed. Apparent dry-matter digestibility values were high for the control diet indicating better palatability and therefore high intake.

Keywords: Maize stalks, Moringa oleifera seed cake, Pennisetum purpurem, Rice Straw, Small ruminants, Supplementation, Tephrosia, Tripsacum laxum

| Full text pdf
Cassava Seeds as Alternative Oil Seed For the Preparation of a Local Food Seasoning
SO Umeh, SC Umerie and DO Amaefule
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(2): 69-72.

Cassava seed, a major waste in an agricultural farm, was utilized in this work as a raw material for the production of a fermented food seasoning ‘ogiri’.
Proximate analysis, trace metal and organoleptic tests were performed on the fermented product. The product was found to have 40 % moisture, 5 % ash, 8 % crude fibre, 19.6 % crude protein, 13.7 % fat, and 28.5 % carbohydrate and 315.7 kcal/100 g energy content. Some trace elements present include calcium 2.77, iron 1.53, potassium 5.53 and sodium 2.01 mg / 100 g of the sample. Organoleptic qualities assessed by ten panellists, using the Kruskal Wallis test and the Likert scale confirmed the seasoning to show acceptability in taste, aroma and texture.

Keywords: Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) seeds, Fermentation, Food seasoning

| Full text pdf
Use of Palm Oil Sludge in Toilet Soap Production
CN Osuji, TO Akunna and EO Ahaotu
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(2): 73-78.

Palm Oil Sludge (POS) was obtained from physical refining step for crude palm oil. The components of POS were high content of free fatty acids (82.2%) with small amount of neutral oil (11.9%), while the residual content (non saponifiable matter and impurities) was 2.1% and in addition to 3.8% water. The results indicated that the colours of POS, tallow and palm kernel oil improved after bleaching. Eight soap samples (1 -8) were prepared from bleached fatty blends of palm oil sludge, tallow and palm kernel oil at different ratios. The results showed that the moisture contents of soap samples 2,7 and 8 were high compared with the standard soap (sample number 1), subsequently their total fatty matters became lower than that found in the control soap (sample number 1). The findings marked that the non saponifiable matter of soap numbers 2, 7 and 8 were higher compared with the other soaps. No high differences were observed in the free alkali of all soaps (range from 0.06 to 0.09%). On the other hand, high differences were found in the free oil of all soap sample (numbers 2-8) compared with the standard soap (sample number 1), except soap sample numbers 2,7 and 8 which record very high.

Keywords: Palm oil sludge, Toilet soap

| Full text pdf
Production of Soap using Palm Bunch Ash
TO Akunna, EO Ahaotu, CN Osuji and CC Ibeh
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(2): 79-82.

The making of soap using vegetable matter (palm bunch waste) was examined. All the factors that confer blackish colour on the soap after saponification process were studied with a view to remedying them. The remedial process involved subjecting the dried palm bunch matter to total combustion, soaking, filtering and recrystallizing the ash-residue to obtain a colourless filtrate and pure extract of the alkali. Coconut oil was extracted from coconut seeds using hot –water extraction process. Soaps were produced using both the conventional and modified methods. Conventional saponification process was modified to improve on the quality of the soap produced with the extracted alkali hence, generating a neater soap which was milky in appearance. The following parameters were determined: free alkali content, total fatty matter, moisture content, lathering ability, cleansing power, matter insoluble in water, matter insoluble in ethanol. The free caustic alkali content of the black soap produced through the conventional method was found to be 0.09%, while 0.26% and 0.98% were recorded respectively for the improved and synthetic-alkali soaps. The total fatty matter content of the black soap was 55.45%, which was over two folds of 23.00% and 21.69% observed in the improved and synthetic –alkali soaps. Moisture content of modified soap was 29.05%, which was remarkably higher than 9.53% recorded for black soap and 6.65 for the synthetic-alkali soap. The lathering ability was found to be 5.00ml for black soap and 15.00ml and 10.00mL for the other soaps. The improved soap produced with purified palm bunch ash-derived alkali was comparatively of a better quality than its conventional black soap counterpart considering some physico-chemical properties such as matter insoluble in water, matter insoluble in ethanol, non saponified neutral fat and lathering characteristics of the soaps.

Keywords: Alkali, Coconut oil, Palm-bunch waste, Soap

| Full text pdf