Volume 1, No. 1, 2013

Prevalence of Pathogenic Bacteria in Smoked Fish sold in Major Retail Markets in Benin, Nigeria
Agu KC, IO Ukponmwan, MU Orji, NS Awah, CI Anaso and OI Udemezue
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(1): 1-4.

The Prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in smoked fish sold in four major markets in Benin City, south western Nigeria was evaluated. The markets were Oba market (OBM), New Benin market (NBM), Oliha Market (OLM) and Ekiosa market (EM). A total of one hundred and twenty-four (124) samples were examined. Potential human pathogens were isolated from all the samples studied. Cultural, morphological, physiological characteristics including biochemical reactions and enzymatic activities were used to identify the isolates. Organisms isolated include Salmonella typhi,, 25 (20%), Staphylococcus aureus, 51 (41%) and Shigella sonnei, 10 (8%). Staphylococcus aureus was isolated more (41%) than the rest followed by Salmonella typhi (20%) and Shigella sonnei (8%). Salmonella typhi was isolated highest at OLM market, 12 (9.7%) and least at OBM and NBM markets with isolation rates of 4 (3.2%) each. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated highest from NBM market with an isolation rate of 18 (14.5%). Shigella sonnei was isolated only from OBM and EM markets with isolation rates of 4 (3.2%) and 6 (4.8%) respectively. This study revealed that smoked fish sold in Benin metropolis contain potential pathogens that can cause food poisoning and other intestinal problems associated with bacterial infections.

Keywords: Bacterial pathogens, Benin, Prevalence, Retail markets, Smoked fish

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Assessment of Anti-Nutritive Factors and Nutrient Composition of some Selected Browse Plants use as Livestock Feeds in Taraba State
Gidado OG, Kibon A, Gwargwor ZA, Mbaya P3 and Baba MJ
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(1): 5-9.

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritive value and anti-nutritive factors of thirty browse plants in Taraba State collected from 6 locations. The study intended to identify commonly available browse plants in Taraba State. Analysis carried out for anti-nutritive factors and chemical composition showed that the mean tannin, saponin and alkaloids content of the browse species were 0.20%: 1.86% and 0.03%, respectively. The mean NDF: lignin and CP content of the browse species were 48.97%: 5.75% and 14.85%, respectively: while mean values for DM: Ash, ADF and EE were 86.97%, 8.69%, 23.30% and 6.04% respectively. Tannins and alkaloids were inherently low due to drying temperature of the samples and being absent in some species. Saponins differed considerably among the different species, but are generally tolerable. The chemical composition showed that the browse species are rich in protein, moderate in lignin content and a little higher than normal value for roughages. Plants worthy of note are Securida longenpendukta with anti-nutritive factors of 0.014%, alkaloids, 0.690% saponin and 0.23% tannin, 22% CP, 43.60NDF. Afzelia Africana with 0.014% alkaloids, 0.840% saponin, 0.162% tanin, 21% CP, 52.11 NDF. Ximenia americana with 0.004% alkaloids, 0.610% saponin 0.183% tannin 22% CP and NDF of 43.83%. Such plants as stated above are recommended for feeding livestock based on their low anti-nutritional value and high chemical composition which present them promising and readily available throughout the state.

Keywords: Anti-Nutritive factors, Browse, Livestock, Nutrient

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Evaluation of Leguminous Fodders for Growth Performance in Weaned New Zealand White Rabbits
S Gunasekaran, K Viswanathan, Karu Pasupathy and L Radhakrishnan
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(1): 10-12.

An experiment was conducted for 60 days to study growth performance and production cost by feeding different leguminous fodders with concentrate feed to weaned New Zealand white rabbits. Eighteen weaned rabbits were divided into 6 each and randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Treatment 1 contained Desmanthus virgatus with concentrate feed, Treatment 2 contained Stylosanthus scabra with concentrate feed and Treatment 3 contained Crotolaria juncea with concentrate feed. The rabbits were given iso nitrogenous feed in the three groups. The feeding trial lasted for sixty days during which data on body weight and weight gains, feed intake and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were collected. Digestion trial was performed to determine the digestibility of nutrients of these fodders. Dietary treatments produced no significant difference on feed consumption, weight gain and FCR. Rabbits fed concentrate diets containing 16.75 % Crude Protein + Desmanathus virgatus had the best feed conversion ratio, least production cost/per kg of body weight gain than the other treatments. Based on the results, the rabbits on diets of Desmanathus virgatus showed better weight gain and lower cost per kilogram weight gain than rabbits fed with Stylosanthus scabra and Crotolaria juncea.

Keywords: Growth performance, Legume fodders, Weaned rabbits, Weight gain

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Effect of Acidic and Alkaline Drinking Water on Haematological Parameters and Carcass Characteristics in Commercial Broilers
P. Veeramani, P. Shamsudeen1, R. Richard Churchil1 and S. T. Selvan
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(1): 13-15.

To find out the changes in the blood parameters and carcass characteristics with respect to acidic and alkaline drinking water the following study was undertaken with two hundred broiler chicks. They were randomly divided into five treatment groups with two replicates each. The drinking water was treated with 0.5 and 1 % lactic acid for acidification, 0.2 and 0.4 % sodium chloride for alkalinisation and a control was provided to the birds in the respective treatment groups. The haematological parameters viz. PCV, Hb %, RBC count, Serum total proteins, Serum calcium and Serum phosphorus were studied. The results revealed no significant difference between the treatment groups in the case of haematological parameters viz. PCV, Hb % and RBC count. Serum total protein was significantly low in alkalinisation groups than other treatments. Serum calcium level was highly significant in alkalinisation group than both acidification and control groups. No differences were observed between the alkalinisation groups. Similar trend was also noticed in case of Serum phosphorus. Regarding carcass characteristics, broilers in 0.5 % lactic acid group had highest dressing percentage than other treatment groups. Except the mean percentage of intestine weight, all other carcass characteristics of broilers did not differ significantly between the treatment groups. Alkalinasation group (0.4% sodium chloride) had significantly higher intestine weight than other treatment groups.

Keywords: Acidification, Alkalinisation, Blood parameters, Carcass characteristics, Drinking water

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Economic Empowerment of Resource Poor Farmers through Scientific Turkey Rearing
P Kumaravel and K Devaki
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(1): 16-18.

The present study was carried out at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kattupakkam to know the yield gaps between improved variety (Nandanam turkey) and native turkeys by conducting frontline demonstration at the farmers’ field. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kattupakkam conducted ten frontline demonstrations during 2010-11 in the farmers’ field for reducing early mortality and improving marketing weight of the turkeys by providing Nandanam turkey, developed by Institute of Poultry production and management, Nandanam of TANUVAS. The body weight of Nandanam Turkey at 4 months of age was 3 kg whereas local variety attained only 2 kg at 4 months of age. The benefit cost ratio for raising improved variety and native turkeys are 4.91:1 and 3.27:1. The only constraint encountered in this trial was the initial cost of Nandanam turkey chicks. The economic analysis of the data revealed that Nandanam turkey yield recorded higher gross returns, net returns and BCR compared to local turkey varieties. Conducting frontline demonstrations on farmers field also help to identify the constraints and potential of the Nandanam Turkey in that specific area in realizing the food security as well as helping in improving the economic and social status of the farmers.

Keywords: Economic empowerment, Food security, Frontline demonstration, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nandanam Turkey

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Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Some Commercial Disinfectants against Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Mundi KS, ELOkoye, BO Uba, CO Esimone and AA Attama
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(1): 19-22.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major problem in the hospital as well as in the community setting. The resistance of MRSA to all β-lactam antibiotics and the most commonly prescribed group of antimicrobials for staphylococcal infections poses a significant limitation to the treatment of diseases caused by this multiple drug resistant strain. The study determined the antibacterial activity of some commercial disinfectants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates obtained from man and animal sources. A total of six disinfectants namely; Isol, Dettol, Roberts, Purit, Savlon, and Z-germicide were used for this study. The disinfectants were tested for antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method. Maximum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) was also done using agar dilution technique. The extinction time of the different disinfectants used against the eight (8) MRSA isolates were determined by tube dilution method. The results revealed that the disinfectants had plausible inhibition zone diameters (IZD) ranging from 5 – 20 mm. The Maximum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) ranged from 1:125 – 1:500. The range of the Maximum Bactericidal Dilution (MBD) was from 1:62.5 – 1:500 and that of the extinction time was from 30 – 50 minutes. Isol had the highest activity even at lower concentrations when compared to the other disinfectants. There was a significant increase in the mean IZD of the disinfectants against the MRSA isolates. Thus, these disinfectants showed promising disinfecting properties and could be employed in the eradication of infections caused by MRSA pathogen.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Disinfectants, Methicillin-resistant, Staphylococcus aureus

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Evaluation of the Effect of Bee venom Administration on the Serology and Haematology of Broiler Chicken
Bolarinwa MO, MA Popoola, TI Ijaduola and AE Sodeeq
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(1): 23-24.

The study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of bee venom (BV) administration on the serology and haematology of broiler chicken. After a brooding period of four weeks, sixty birds were randomly allotted into five treatments: Control Treatment (T0), Treatment 1(T1), Treatment 2(T2), Treatment 3(T3) and Treatment 4(T4) with twelve birds per treatment, three replicates per treatment and four birds per replicate. To served as the control experiment, while T1, T2, T3 and T4 were administered with 0.3mg, 0.6mg, 0.9mg and 1.2mg BV per bird respectively through direct stinging. Birds were fed ad-libitum during the brooding period, also the BV administration was done once per week and the administration lasted for a period of six weeks.
Results showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the liver function enzymes examined: Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT).There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the haematological parameters examined: red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets but there was a significant difference (P<0.005) in the level of lymphocytes when compared to the control which had no BV administration.

Keywords: Ad-libitum, Brooding period, Liver function enzymes, Treatments

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Effects of Enzyme Fortified Raw Moringa Seed (Moringa oleifera) Waste Diets on Nutrient Utilization and Haematological Parameters of Broilers
EO Ahaotu, CF Ezeafulukwe CM Ayo-Enwerem1 and BU Ekenyem
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(1): 25-30.

A 4-week study was conducted to investigate the effects of graded levels of raw moringa seed waste (RMSW) and supplementary enzyme (Roxazyme G) on nutrient utilization and haematological parameters of broilers. Ninety – six 6-weeks old Anak broilers were randomly divided into 8 groups of 12 birds each. The groups were randomly assigned to 8 healthy ( 11.480 – 12.200 MJ of ME/Kg) and nitrogenous ( 20.090 – 20.430% crude protein) diets in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement involving four levels ( 0, 10, 15 and 20%) of RMSW and 2 enzyme levels ( 0 and 0.020%). Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 4 birds per replicate. During week 4 of the experiment, a seven – day excreta collection from three birds per treatment was carried out to determine the apparent retention of the proximate components. Three birds were also randomly selected from each treatment group (one bird per replicate) and blood samples collected from them for haematological determination. The retention of dry matter (DM), nitrogen, crude fiber (CF), ether extract (EE), nitrogen free extract (NFE) and gross energy (GE) differed significantly (P<0.05) among treatments. Though there were no significant (P>0.05) differences among treatments in mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCV), significant (P<0.05) differences existed among treatments in haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean cell volume (MCV), significant (P<0.05) differences existed among treatments in haemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC) and white blood cell count (WBC). The RBC, Hb and PCV values decreased, while the WBC increased with increasing levels of RMSW in the diets. The study showed that up to 20% of raw Moringa seed waste supplemented with 200 mg/kg Roxazyme G can be included in the diet of broiler finishers without any deleterious effects on their nutrient haematological parameters.

Keywords: Broilers, Enzyme, Haematological parameters, Moringa seed waste

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Effect of Fertilization of Fish Pond with Graded Levels of Pig Dung on the Performance of Clarias gariepinus (Cat Fish) Raised under Tropical Conditions
CF Ezeafulukwe, EO Ahaotu, FN Madubuike and LE Osuagwu
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(1): 31-36.

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of pig dung pond fertilization to test Cat fish yield at different levels of concentrations. The concentrations used were 9.80, 22.64 and 34.96 g/m3/day, for Low Concentration of Pig Dung (LCPD), Medium Concentration of Pig Dung (MCPD) and High Concentration of Pig Dung (HCPD), respectively. Fish in the treated ponds received no supplementary feeding throughout the experimental period. In this study, the effect of pig manure on water quality, the survival and growth of Clarias gariepinus, the carcass composition of the fish were investigated. Growth indices were low in LCPD and they increased successively in MCPD and HCPD; however, they compared favourably well with those recorded in the control ponds in which the fish were fed. Survival was highest (99%) in HCPD and control ponds while the lowest (95%) was recorded in the LCPD experimental. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in fish carcass composition at the end of the experiment. Water quality parameters monitored during the experimental period were all within favourable range for aquaculture production; with daytime mean values of dissolved oxygen being 8.36±0.39, 9.43±0.48 and 8.15±0.58 mg/l in LCPD, MCPD and HCPD experimental ponds, respectively. Also, HCPD experimental ponds yielded better growth indices and compared favourably with results obtained in the control experimental ponds.

Keywords: Carcass quality, Fertilizer, Growth, Plankton, Survival

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Manufacture of a Pencil Lead with a Castor Bean Stem Ash as a Pigmentation Supplement
Nwigbo SC, C Nwokeke, C Okoye and I Ojukwu
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2013, 1(1): 37-39.

This Project work covers the processes leading to the production of the lead of a pencil using graphite, clay, lampblack and the introduction of castor bean (Ugba) stem carbon as the major constituents. The pencil lead was produced by the application of the Maclean and Anderson method of experimental design for studying the performance of multi component systems in the presence of constraints. An acceptable mix ratio of 0.3: 0.5: 0.1: 0.2 for the components respective order was realized. A characterization by the shading performance of the lead grouped the product in the H family.

Keywords: Clay, Graphite, Lamp Black, Pencil lead

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