Volume 4, No. 1, 2016

Pulp and Paper Making Properties of Four Non-Wood Plant Species of Anambra State, Nigeria
Eugene Onyekwe Onuorah, Joseph Tagbo Nwabanne and Elias Lovet Chukwunonso Nnabuife
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2016, 4(1): 1-7.

The fiber morphology, proximate chemical analysis, pulping studies using either soda-AQ or Kraft as well as handsheet properties of each of the four (04) non-wood fibrous materials (B. vulgaris, O. abyssinica, E. guineensis empty fruit bunch, and O. sativa straw) were determined in the laboratory. Fiber morphological studies reveal mean fiber length (1.01-2.78mm), fiber diameter (8.00 – 19.43m), cell-wall thickness (1.8-4.26m) and cell lumen diameter (4.28-12.05m). The related derived morphological properties (slenderness ratio (52.88-173.75), Runkel ratio (0.584-0.869). flexibility co-efficient (53.5-63.09) and rigidity co-efficient (0.367-0.465)) of these species make them apt as paper making fibers. Proximate chemical analysis were done in accordance with the provisions of TAPPI (2007). Same reveal mean cellulose content (36.82-47.82%), pentosan (17.00-28.23%), lignin (15.00-23.02%), Ash (2.91-16.10%) and 1% NaOH solubility (22.60-48.00%). Rice straw has both high ash content (16.10%) and high 1% NaOH solubility (48.00%) both of which may create problems during chemical recovery and also cause scaling of digester walls. Each fibrous material was subjected to either soda-AQ or Kraft cook and resultant pulp bleached using alkaline-peroxide bleach. Bleached pulp brightness ranges from 71.0 t0 86.02% which is low but acceptable for peroxide bleach which has advantage of chlorine free. Pulp and hardsheets properties were determined using TAPPI (2007) procedure. Properties were subjected to ANOVA using SPSS version 20 software (Anon 2012) with partition for non-wood type and type of cook followed by mean separation. Results reveal soda-AQ cooks gave significantly higher (p>0.05) pulp brightness levels and yield, paper hand sheet double fold number and tensile index and lower kappa number of pulp than those obtained from Kraft cooks using same non-wood species. Conversely, handsheet produced from Kraft cooks gave significantly (P>0.05) higher breaking lengths, brust index and tear index than their counterpert produed from soda-AQ cook. The pulp and paper properties make each a suitable substitute for tropical hardwood pulp-wood though the rice.

Keywords: Alkaline –peroxide bleaching, Bamboo (B. vulgaris and O. abyssinica), Oil palm (E. guineensis), Pulp and paper properties, Rice (O. sativa) straw

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Phytochemical Analysis and In vitro Evaluation of the Synergistic Antimicrobial Activity of Allium sativum and Murraya Koenigii
Effiong Edet Bassey, Iduu Nneka V, IF Okonkwo and EA Kyrian-Ogbonna
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2016, 4(1): 8-16.

Increasing multidrug resistance of pathogens has led to the search for alternative remedies for treatment of infectious diseases. The study, photochemical constituents and antimicrobial potential of the cloves of Allium Sativum and Murraya koenigii leaves have been investigated against different bacterial and fungal isolates using different solvents for extraction. Aqueous, methanol and ethanol extracts of each plant was assayed separately and in combination against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Bacillus subtilis, staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates. The antimicrobial activity was determined by Agar diffusion method. There was a significant variation in the antimicrobial activities of aqueous, methanol and ethanol extracts of Allium sativum and Murraya koenigii and this may be attributed to the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, and phenols present in both samples. Aqueous extract of Allium sativum showed better activity against Candida albicans having a zone of inhibition of 17.5mm while methanol extracts of both samples showed better activities against all tested bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the different extracts against the test Microorganisms varied from 6.25 to 25.0mg/ml while the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) ranged beween 12.5 to 25.0mg/ml. The study revealed that the combination of extracts of Allium sativum and Murraya koenigii may not always yield the desired bactericidal effect on both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and nor fungicidal effect.

Keywords: Allium Sativum, Antimicrobial analysis, Muraya koenigii, Phytochemical

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Trends of HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Awka Metropolis, Nigeria
Bassey Effiong Edet1 and Mbanisiuju Bridget
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2016, 4(1): 17-21.

This research study reports the state of HIV/ AIDS infection amongst the attendants of General Hospital Amaku and Regina Caeli hospitals, Awka for screening between 2012 and 2013 the attendees were screened for HIV, data on demographics and sexual behavior were collected through the admission of questionnaires at baseline. The overall HIV prevalence was 8.4 % and 10% of the women involved were at risk of HIV infection. The spread of HIV in Nigeria is predominantly through heterosexual transmission (68.5%). The study revealed that the attendees’ married, but involved into extra- marital affairs (multiple Partners) were vulnerable to HIV infection among the attendees. Nevertheless, they were high level prior knowledge of existing of HIV infection especially among the female attendees, due to the impact created by National Agency for HIV control in Nigeria. The use of condoms (43.7%) was given attention to and this was through adequate efforts of counseling and education by Heart to Heart units in Nigeria, hence considerably reduction in incidence of HIV acquisition. HIV infection was prevalence amongst the commercial drivers, (Bus, Tricycles, Taxi drivers) 37.0%. They were socially closed to free women, especially commercial sex workers, and lack of knowledge of HIV contributed to the incidence of HIV among male attendees. The need for focused targeted interventions at this group, through awareness creation and appropriate education to reduce the risk of HIV infection by both the privates. Non Governmental organizations and governmental agencies are recommended.

Keywords: AIDS, Awka metropolis, HIV infection, Serological test, Survey, Titre

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Re-Design and Performance Evaluation of a Refurbished Vertical Fabric Steamer
Nwigbo Solomon, Anosikwa Michael and Afamefuna John
Inter J Appl Sci Engr, 2016, 4(1): 22-26.

The Vertical Fabric Steamer is a sizeable machine that operates with thermodynamics steady state energy flow system (SFEE). The machine has two systems; Steam System and Hot Air System. This machine produces a continuous steam within the interval of about 73 seconds for the purpose of (ironing), removing wrinkles from fabrics. The hot air system serves for general drying purpose (moisture removal from Fabrics). The machine contains a transparent water tank that is connected directly to the boiler. A Boiler of 3 bars was used to achieve a boiling point above the atmospheric boiling point of water (100°C).Water flow from the water tank to the boiler is as a result of the pressure difference between created by the boiler. The Hot Air System is composed of a blower connected in a tube with a heating element. Other component parts are; the Spray Head attached to Steam Hose, a vertical pole with a Hanger, and the electrical parts. Due to the Kinetic energy, convective thermal energy and moisture content of the steam, the machine exercised great advantage over conventional Irons. The Total power consumption of the machine is 1.3KW with boiler efficiency of 98%.

Keywords: Boiler, Design, Fabric, Hot air, Ironing, Steam

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